Pass Energy and Resolution

Pass energy is a term used to define the resolution of an acquisition. To understand exactly what it is, we must consider the XPS analyser (figure [...]

Photoionisation Cross Sections

Simply put, the photoionisation cross section is the probability of an electron photoemission process occuring and is commonly denoted as σ(ω). Different orbitals and different elements [...]

The Auger Process and Auger Peaks

XPS TheoryPass Energy and ResolutionPhotoionisation Cross SectionsThe Auger Process and Auger PeaksCoster-KronigPeak Asymmetry in Conducting Materials The Auger process involves the filling of an inner-shell vacancy [...]

Coster-Kronig

This article makes heavy use of the Auger notation – see our page on Auger emission for information on this if you are not familiar with [...]

Peak Asymmetry in Conducting Materials

XPS TheoryPass Energy and ResolutionPhotoionisation Cross SectionsThe Auger Process and Auger PeaksCoster-KronigPeak Asymmetry in Conducting Materials Typically, spectral peaks from photelectron emission exhibit a symmetrical lineshape, [...]

Plasmon Loss

Materials possessing a high density of free electrons around the fermi level are susceptible to plasmon formation during photoemission. Such examples are Al, Si, Na and [...]

Multiplet Splitting

Multiplet Splitting Multiplet splitting (also termed exchange splitting) is a final state effect which, similar to spin-orbit splitting arises because of interactions between magnetic fields set [...]

Spin-Orbit Splitting

Spin-Orbit Splitting For core-levels other than s-orbitals, peaks will be split due to spin-orbit splitting. Core levels in XPS are defined by the terminology nlj, where [...]

The Photoelectric Effect

The Photoelectic Effect The fundamental principle behind the XPS process is the existence of the so-called ‘photoelectric effect’, which describes the interaction between matter and radiation [...]