Synchotron XPS has numerous benefits and advantages over lab based sources, the high photon flux permits superior analysis of adsorbates and trace elements, the tunable energy provides a method for the study of buried layers or density of states and dedicated NAP-XPS systems provide experimental stations to probe samples under simulated operating conditions.
Below is a list of the numerous XPS beamlines around Europe and beyond. Whilst not an exhaustive list, it may prove a useful resource for researchers looking for XPS beamlines.
UK, Diamond Light Source
Contact: Tien-Lin Lee
Techniques: XPS (230-18000 eV), Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS), X-ray Standing Waves (XSW), Photoelectron Diffraction (PhD) and X-ray Reflectivity (XRR), Hard X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (HAXPES)
A range of techniques and tunable photon energy makes this source perfect for the analysis of buried layers. Very large energy range possible. Prep chamber allows heating to 1500K and cooling < 50K.
Contact: Georg Held
Techniques: XPS (50 – 2800 eV), NAP-XPS and Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS)
B07 is home to the ambient pressure XPS system at Diamond, and as such this beamline is perfect for those wishing to study samples under controlled atmospheres. Heating and cooling available – 250 K – 300 K (AP); 150 K – 300 K (UHV) up to 750 K at ambient pressure/1100 K in UHV.
Contact: Michael Hävecker
Techniques: XPS, NAP-XPS, NEXAFS, Heating up to 1000K, Electron impact mass spectrometer, proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer, micro gas chromatograph
The ISSIS station at BESSY has good capabilities for NAP-XPS and is ideal for such experiments.
Contact: Ruslan Ovsyannikov
Techniques: XPS (110 – 1900 eV), UPS, Angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES), TOF, Heating (30-1200K).
Prep chamber with free ports, heating to 800K, balance and mass spec.
This beamline has particularly useful angle resolved capabilities for those working with electronic materials.
Contact: Claus M. Schneider
Techniques: Photoemission Electron Microscopy (PEEM), 50 – 1000 eV
A specialized form of ESCA, using photoemission to image. Whilst not exactly an XPS beamline, it may be of interest to XPS researchers.
Contact: Luca Gregoratti
Techniques: Scanning photoelectron microscopy (SPEM), NAP-SPEM, 90 – 1500 eV (or 130 – 1800 eV when storage ring operating at 2.4 GeV)
A unique beamline, 2.2L may operate either in spectroscopy or imaging mode. This beamline provides photoemission imaging with a lateral resolution of 40 nm, providing the capability to prepare an incredibly high resolution chemical state map with an option high pressure chamber for NAP experiments.
Contact: Silvano Lizzit
Techniques: High resolution XPS (90 – 1500 eV, or 130 – 1800 eV when storage ring operating at 2.4 GeV), Low energy electron diffraction (LEED), Plasma source, Sputter gun, Heating stage/He cryostat (15 – 1500K), Gas dosing
The CoSMoS end station also provides variable temperature (80-600K) STEM and monochromated Al and Ag X-ray sources with heating and cooling from (80 – 1300K)
High flux and fast analysis times permit analysis of changing states in real time. The use of gas dosing allows for model studies of adsorbates onto single crystals, perfect for those in the field of catalysis to study reaction pathways.
Techniques: XPS (100 – 2000 eV), NAP-XPS, PEEM, NEXAFS (NAPP), X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) (NAPP), Heating and cooling (100-1500K on the PEEM endstation, -23 to 1000K on the NAPP endstation), LEED (both endstations), Mass spec (NAPP)
This beamline has 2 endstations, one dedicated to PEEM and one to NAP-XPS. Heating by infrared and cooling by Peltier element results in a system quite suitable for single crystal work and well as ‘real’ samples. Gas dosing system is automated and allows up to three different gases to be equipped at one time.
Australia, The Australian Synchotron
Contact: Bruce Cowie
Techniques: XPS (90-2500 eV), XAS, NEXAFS, ARPES, LEED, STM, Sputtering, Cooling (LN/LHe)
A large energy range and wide array of techniques available make this a strong all-round beamline for XPS.
USA, Advanced Light Source (California)
Contact: Ethan Crumlin
Techniques: XPS (2320 – 6000 eV), NAP-XPS, HAXPES, XAS
This beamline operates in the HAXPES energy range and has ambient pressure capabilities.
Contact: Ethan Crumlin
Techniques: XPS (200 – 900 eV), NAP-XPS
Much like the 9.3.1 beamline, but with soft X-rays.
Contact: Sung-Kwan Mo
XPS (17-350 eV), ARPES, Spin-resolved photoemission
This beamline specialises in ARPES and analysis of spin-dependant electronic structure, ideal for those working in electronic materials.
USA, National Synchotron Light Source (New York)
Contact: Cherno Jaye
Techniques: XPS (100 – 2200 eV), NEXAFS
This beamline also has several advanced imaging endstations which are beyond the scope of this list
Contact: Conan Weiland
Techniques: XPS (2000 – 7500 eV), HAXPES
This beamline also has advanced imaging capabilities which are beyond the scope of this list
Contact: Iradwikanari Waluyo
Techniques: XPS (250 – 2000 eV), NAP-XPS, XAS, Heating (~1200K)
This beamline offers a wide range of supplied gases for NAP-XPS experiments