The predominant photoemission for sulfur is the 2p region, which consists of a doublet with a reasonable doublet separation (1.16 eV – Figure 1). This region may overlap with Bi 4f and Se 3p.
Since binding energy shifts may be small for organic sulfurs and polysulfides, the S 2p:KLL auger parameter may make state identification simpler.(1)
Si 2s plasmons can overlap with the S 2p region and render appropriate background simulation difficult in the cases of low S:Si ratio.
Typical binding energies for sulfur compounds may be found in table 1.
|Species||Si 2p3/2 Binding energy / eV||Charge ref||Ref|
|Thiol, R-SH||162||C 1s / 284.6 eV||4|
|Thiol, Au-SH||162.8||Au 4f / 84 eV||5|
|Sulfonic acid (R-SO3H)||~168||C 1s / 284.8 eV||6|
|Sulfated zirconia||169.2||C 1s / 284.6 eV||7|
|CuSO4||168.8||C 1s / 284.6 eV||8|
- Spectra recorded by HarwellXPS
- Fantauzzi, M., et al. (2014). “A contribution to the surface characterization of alkali metal sulfates.” Journal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena 193: 6-15. Read it online here.
- Fantauzzi, M., et al. (2015). “Exploiting XPS for the identification of sulfides and polysulfides.” RSC advances 5(93): 75953-75963. Read it online here.
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- Isaacs, M. A., et al. (2019). “Unravelling mass transport in hierarchically porous catalysts.” Journal of Materials Chemistry A 7(19): 11814-11825. Read it online here.
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- Vasquez, R. (1998). “CuSO4 by XPS.” Surface Science Spectra 5(4): 279-284. Read it online here.