Photoelectric effect

The fundamental principle behind the XPS process is the existence of the so-called ‘photoelectric effect’, which describes the interaction between matter and radiation pertaining to the electrons within the target atom. Essentially, when radiation with enough energy interacts with an atom, it may remove an electron (emitted electron is called […]

Multiplet splitting of s-orbitals in first row transition metals

Note for below: WordPress does not support underlining characters – so core holes will be described using a bold text-type rather than an underlined text-type. Apologies for the confusion. S-orbitals characteristically exist as single peaks in XPS analysis and indeed, if one were to only analyse principal photoemissions then this […]

027: XPS for Beginners – Data Analysis 7

In data analysis 7, we discover quantification! Tips: These files were run using a Kratos instrument and as such require you to load the kratos library before you begin analysis! Tasks: Determine the O to Ce ratio in CeO2 Determine the Mo:Te retio in MoTe Determine the molecular formula of […]

046: XPS for Beginners – Data Analysis 6

In data analysis 6 – we look at peak asymmetry, and how we account for this in our peak models. To remind yourself of how asymmetry arises – go back to the fundamentals 5 session or check out our guru page for a refresher! Tips: Start with graphene to get […]

044: XPS for Beginners – Data Analysis 4

In this video, we begin to use components to model our data. Tips Oxalic Acid Dihydrate: While we would expect to see a single oxidation state for carbon here, don’t forget about adventitious carbon!! Polyvinyl pyrrolidone Look at the structure of PVP and think about the expected carbon ratios – […]

043: XPS for Beginners – Data Analysis 3

In data analysis 3, we will be looking at energy calibrations. Have a go at applying different backgrounds to different regions and get used to creating regions around peaks of interest. In the AgSiO2 example – look for odd peaks in the C 1s and Ag 3d regions. Use the […]

042: XPS for Beginners – Data Analysis 2

In section 2, we talk about energy calibration and learn how and why this is important! Calibrate the samples to carbon, to get used to the process. For the second and third datasets, try calibrating to carbon vs calibrating to the substrate peaks, and see how this affects your overlaid […]